While we’ll go through wiring up the FAST computer and other associated engine components in a separate installment, here we’ll cover replacing the front and rear wiring harnesses with factory correct Lectric Limited ones provided by Zip Corvette. In stock guise, our C3 has two other major harnesses: one for the engine and another for the dash, which we’ll cover when we do the gauge installation. The front lamp harness has the headlights, corner markers, and turn signals, as well as the alternator wiring and other associated circuits. The rear harness has all the rear lighting, as well as the dome light, door switches, and most of the alarm wiring.
The good thing about a “correct” harness, and this is likely to be the only correct part on this car, is that the wire color and size match the factory spec, so it’s easy to compare them with what’s already in the car and with the factory wiring diagram found in the assembly manual. It’s important to know, though, that the wiring harness is just that: just wires, with the connectors at the end of each wire so that it can plug into whatever it mates with, be it a bulb, relay, subharness, whatever. Along the way you’ll find smaller parts that it connects to that are broken or missing, such as our long-gone horns or broken door switches, so you’ll need to order these separately. In our case, we made a list of parts as we put the harness in and ordered new replacements for virtually everything, even ones that weren’t obviously broken.
After seeing the condition of our factory harnesses, rewiring is probably one of the first things I’ll do to any older car I buy. Assuming you’re not modifying it (that comes later), you can probably do these two harnesses in a long day: I worked fairly slowly, and spent a full weekend of 8-hour days on these, and got a running start on the more tedious dash harness. Hopefully we won’t barbecue this shark when we put the juice to her.
01. Scarlett, our ’72 coupe project car. With her 600-plus hp stroker LS3 in place, piped, plumbed, and bolted to a Tremec six-speed. It’s time to start getting her wired by replacing the factory harnesses.
02. Our factory-correct harnesses, probably the only correct parts in the car, were provided by Zip Corvette. In addition to the complete harnesses made by Lectric Limited, they also provided a laminated wiring diagram that’s an indispensable part of any serious wiring project, and shows each circuit, marked by color and gauge or wire.
03. One of the first parts of wiring the car is to get the harnesses laid out to make sure it’s the same as the one you’re taking out. You certainly can do a wiring project a little at a time, but it helps to have plenty of space and time to lay things out. We laid out many of the ancillary wiring parts along with the harnesses.
04. We did the rear harness first and started by removing the Corbeau seats as well as the five-point harness mounting bar and rear trim pieces and peeling back the carpet. This part of the wiring harness contains the seatbelt warning light circuits as well as the glovebox light and the wiring and flasher unit for the alarm, which are found in the rear well that holds the jack.
05. If you have the option of not completely removing the old harness, it makes installation much easier to lay the new harness over the old one to make sure you’re making all the correct connections. Using a factory correct harness also makes it easier, as you simply match wire colors to know where each one goes, assuming yours is largely unmolested.
06. The part of the rear harness going into the jack well passes through a split rubber grommet that reduces the risk of abrasion from the sharp edge of the hole in the fiberglass.
07. There are three flashers in the C3: one on the fuse box, one under the passenger side dash, and one in the jack well. Factory flashers work based on the amount of resistance each bulb creates, but since we’ll be changing all the bulbs to LEDs that don’t provide enough resistance for a thermal flasher to work, we ordered LED-specific flashers from Corvette America. In addition to plugging in, they’ll also need to be grounded.
08. There are four door switches in the ’72: one at the front of each door opening, and one at the rear. The fronts run the courtesy lights, while the rears control the alarm. We unscrewed the switches and pulled them out, then used a thin piece of welding rod with the new wires taped to it to get the flexible wires guided through the hole so they could be connected to the switch.
09. With the door switches and the wiring for the seatbelt warning lights and alarm in place, we moved toward the rear of the car. The harness runs over the rear wheelwell, just under the rubber Astro Ventilation tubes, to the rear of the luggage compartment.
10. The factory Astro Ventilation tubes are held in place by rivets, but ours had been replaced with stainless screws. Even though the harness is held in place by the bent metal clips, we later capped the threaded part of the screws with rubber caps to avoid abrasion.
11. The rear harness passes to the underside of the car through a rubber grommet at the rear of the luggage compartment. There are always surprises when you start peeling back the carpet, and one of ours was finding the green speaker wire that someone had used to wire up the rear dome light.
12. The only thing more surprising than the fact that the rear dome light hadn’t caught on fire is that it actually worked. Only the bold need peel back the duct tape here on the back of the dome light assembly. We ordered a new socket to replace it.
13. The new harness in place. The orange and white wires are the correct ones for the dome light. Before we put the rubber grommet in place, we made a hole in it to run the separate heavy-gauge red wire that goes to our Aeromotive A1000 in-tank fuel pump.
14. Inexplicably, the horn for the factory alarm system was still bolted in place in its position up beneath the car above the driver-side rear wheelwell, and when we put a pair of hot wires to it, shocked us all by working. It got a good cleaning, and went right back in place.
15. The rear harness ends with the wiring for the alarm switch and the rear lights. The taillights each have a pair of threaded bolts protruding from them: a ground wire, to which we added a larger washer, bolts to the bottom bolt, while the harness has mounting loops, shown here near the bottom of the photo, that are bolted in place on the upper ones.
17. In addition to the headlights, the front lamp harness also feeds power to the corner markers, via the blue-and-white wires, and the turn signals, which are fed by a separate subharness that plugs into it.
18. The plug for the front turn signal subharness is a female one, and as it turned out, our mismatched subharness itself also had a female plug, which a previous owner had handled by making this taped abomination to go between the two plugs. I remain grateful but mystified at the fact that the resultant mass of black-taped goo neither caught on fire nor ever stopped working.
19. The harness includes new plugs for the corner markers, which use a 194 bulb. We’ll be replacing the front ones with amber LEDs, and the rears with red ones. Note the blue overspray on the plug. Add one more color to the red and black that Scarlett has been painted at different times in her life.
20. The new front lamp harness is on the left: note the thick conduit and the plastic clip that holds it in place under the car’s nose just forward of the hood, compared with the older harness on the right, which is bundled with traditional loom tape and has a steel clip.
21. The all-important horn relay, which bolts to the rear of the driver-side fender skirt opposite the alternator, serves as a power distribution point for the rest of the car. The red 10 gauge wire is fed directly by the alternator; since our LS has an alternator on the opposite side of the engine than a standard small-block, we’ll be pulling this wire out of the harness and replacing it with a longer one that’s properly routed to reach the new alternator.
22. Several wires exit the front lamp harness around the alternator: the top three go to the alternator (positive, ground, and voltage regulator), the middle is for the temperature sending unit, and the bottom plug is for the brake warning light sending unit.
23. The bulkhead plugs for the front lamp harness (bottom/left) and the engine harness (top/right). The wiring harness plug slides into place, interlocking with the engine harness, and the assembled plug is bolted into place on the bulkhead connector on the opposite side of the fuse box.
INSTALLATION INFORMATIONEMG MODELS: EMG-H, HA, 58, 60, 60A, 81, 85WarrantyAll EMG Pickups and accessories are warranted for a period of two years. This warranty does not cover failure due to improper installation, abuse or damage. If upon examination the pickup is determined to be defective, a replacement will be made. Warranty replacement products are covered by this same warranty. This warranty covers only those pickups and accessories sold by authorized EMG Dealers. This warranty is not transferable. © 2014 Copyright EMG INC. All Rights Reserved.PO BOX 4394 SANTA ROSA, CA95402 USAP (707) 525-9941F (707) 575-7046EMGPICKUPS.COM0230-0106revE*Note: Logo Colors are not distinguished on EMG Metal Works Pickups**Note: Magnet Type: A (Alnico) A/S (Alnico/Steel) C (Ceramic) C/S (Ceramic/Steel)Installation notes:All EMG Pickups are compatible with each other. EMG accessories, the VLPF, EXG, SPC or RPC Controls can be added to any EMG Pickup Systemwithout requiring an extra battery. DO NOT reconnect the bridge ground wire, EMG Pickups do not require string grounding. Use the 25K Ohm controls that are included for best results. If your output jack is a long panel style you will need a stereo jack, use a SwitchCraft 152B , solderingwill be required (see the bottom of page 2). Adjust the pickup level to the strings, and at a distance that works for you, experiment. Alternatewiring diagrams are available at; emgpickups.com.SPECIFICATIONS:MODEL:H HA 58 60 60A 81 85Logo Color* White Gold Gold Grey Gold Silver GoldMagnet Type ** C A A/S C A C/S AResonant Frequency (KHz) 4.05 3.70 1.53 2.20 1.80 1.63 1.87Output Voltage (String) 1.00 1.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.10Output Voltage (Strum) 3.00 3.00 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50 4.50Output Noise (60 Hz) -101 -101 -100 -101 -100 -100 -101Output Impedance (Kohm) 10 10 10 10 10 10 10Current @9V (Microamps) 80 80 80 80 80 80 80Battery Life (Hours) 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000Maximum Supply (Volts DC) 27 27 27 27 27 27 27PICKUP CABLE 15” (38cm)OUTPUT CABLE 6” (15cm)2 CONNECT CABLES 5.5” (14cm)BATTERY CABLE 7” (18cm)B2452.751.503.093/48 MOUNTING HOLES.900.725- 9V +BATTERYBUSS2 PICKUP IN/ OUTBATTERY BUSSSTEREO OUTPUTJACK1 VOLUME CONTROL (25K)1 TONE CONTROL (25K)(69.8)(38.1)(22.8)(18.4)(78.5)ADJUSTMENTSCREWS & SPRINGSIncluded with each pickup:
Diagram #2One PickupOne VolumeDiagram #3One PickupOne VolumeOne ToneTIPRINGSLEEVEDiagram #4FROM TONEOR VOLUMEGeneral Notes:Every attempt has been made to make this a solderless installation.There are some instances where this is not possible; 1) If your instrument uses the long panel output jack and you had passive pickups you will need a new stereo output jack, the Switchcraft 152B is recommended. Soldering to the new jack will be required, see diagram #4 below. 2) Some instruments may already have a battery holder installed and in that case soldering may be required to the battery buss, see diagram #5 below. 3) Instruments with two pickups may need soldering to the selection switch in some installations. If you are installing only one pickup use the instructions on this page.If you are installing two pickups go to page 3 and begin there.Installation Instructions: H INSTRUCTIONS Page 2VOLUMEB122rHVOLUMEB122rHTONEB124rHBATTERYNEG (-)RED to BATTERY BUSSSoldering to the 152B Panel Jack:If your instrument has a long Panel Jack like the one belowyou will have to solder the output cable as shown. Ground (Black) to the sleeveSignal (White) to the Tip Battery Negative (Black) to the Ring- 9V +Diagram #1Insert the plug onto the 3 pin headerof the pickup as shown above.Note the orientation arrow.Installation (One Pickup Guitars):1) Plug the pickup cable onto the EMG Pickup header as shown in diagram #1 and route the cable to the control cavity. If the cable is too long, wind up the excess and keep it under the pickup if possible.Master Volume control only 2) Refer to diagram #2. Plug both the Pickup cable and the output cable onto the Volume control as shown, then go to step 4.Master Volume and Tone control3) Refer to diagram #3. Plug the Pickup cable onto the Volume control as shown. Plug a coax cable from the Volume control to the Tone control. Plug the output cable onto the tone control as shown.4) Connect the wires of the output cable to the output jack by pushing the connectors on as shown. WHITE wire to the TIP (T) contact, BLACK wire to the SLEEVE (S) contact BLACK Battery Negative wire to the RING (R) contact.5) Using the battery buss, insert the RED wire of the pickup, and the battery RED wire. Extra pins can be used for EMG Accessories.6) Put the battery in the insulating foam piece provided and place it securely in the control cavity. We suggest that you plug in the instrument and test it before closing the control cavity.
Vw g60 sam is the lucky owner of a vw corrado g60 to the uninitiated that s the souped up go fast version with the fancy supercharger on top while performing some mods to the air intake car speak designed and built by the volkswagen motorsport division only 71 of these quot g60 limited quot models exist featuring a unique number and plaque the g60 supercharger was combined with the 16 valve . System wiring diagrams article text p 44 1994 volkswagen corrado for volkswagen technical site title print created date 12 7 1999 112336 pm. This volkswagen repair manual contains comprehensive service and repair information for volkswagen corrado corrado g60 corrado vr6 and corrado slc models sold in the usa and canada built on the a2 platform wiring diagrams complete wiring diagrams the accurate wiring information for each model and model year including optional equipment . Wiring diagrams article text 1992 volkswagen corrado for volkswagen technical site 1992 wiring diagrams volkswagen wiring diagrams volkswagen corrado component location menu component locations table 1992 volkswagen corrado for volkswagen technical site
Here at Crutchfield, we always say, "Just give us a call if you have any questions." That's because our people know their stuff. For example, the photo at the top of the page is a recent group of new advisors in our sales and tech support teams finishing up their 13-week training class. One of the requirements is that they install a car audio system, often in their own vehicles, under the supervision of their trainer. We really put them to the test and they do indeed know their stuff. And with our help, you can too!
This installation guide offers examples of amplifier installation and layout. Installation specifics will depend on the make and body style of your vehicle and the equipment you purchased.
Before going through this more-detailed guide, you might want to watch our amplifier installation video to get an overview of what's involved:
Before we get into the installation, let's talk about some of the details:
Car amplifiers don't come with any wiring included. You must supply the amp's power and ground wiring, an inline fuse, a remote turn-on wire, RCA cables, and speaker wires.
The power and ground wires need to be thick enough to accommodate the amp's demand for electrical current or the amp won't operate properly or put out its rated power. Your amp's instructions will include a recommendation on what size wire to use. Or, you can check out How to determine the best size wire for help doing it yourself. Don't forget to measure all distances first, so you'll know what lengths of wire to get.
The in-line fuse on the main power cable, mounted within six inches or so of the battery connection, is essential for protecting the wire, your car, and you from a catastrophic fire in the event of a short circuit. Each wire manufacturer rates their wire's current capacity differently, but as a general rule, for a typical 16- to 20-foot run, you'll be safe using a:
Crutchfield's 4-gauge amplifier power wiring kit
An amplifier wiring kit
The easiest way to get these items is with an amplifier wiring kit, which will include matching power, ground, turn-on wires, and fuse.
Amp wiring kits often don't include signal wiring. Your amplifier gets its input signals from the receiver's output typically via RCA cables. RCA cables come in stereo pairs, in various lengths. When running new speaker wires from your amplifier's output to the speakers, any size wire from 18- to 14-gauge will work fine. (The lower the gauge number, the thicker the wire.) For subwoofers, use 16- to 12-gauge wires.
Use these guidelines to choose a location for mounting your amplifier. A smart mounting location will help your installation go smoothly:
A compact subwoofer amplifier mounted in an out-of-the-way nook in a trunk with plenty of air space for cooling
Good locations to install an amplifier include:
All system wiring should be concealed for safety, and to give your installation a nice, finished look. Wires should be secured so that they do not interfere with safe vehicle operation. Depending on the location you choose for your amplifier, the wiring may need to be run under the dash, door scuff plate, pillar trimpanel, or kickpanel.
Boyo trim panel tools
The instructions below address, in general, which panels may need to be removed and how they typically come off. Often, panels can be pried up at the edges. You'll probably also need to remove some screws and retaining clips (Figure 1). To prevent damage, always use care when removing panels — a panel tool is helpful.
Screws and retaining clips might be present that will require removal
The plates are usually removed by prying up the edges to release clips. Some vehicles will have screws present which will need to be removed (Figure 2).
A seat belt may be located on a panel that needs to be removed. Most seat belt anchor covers pry off. The seat belt anchor is secured with a large nut or bolt (Figure 3).
Remove the seat belt if present. Remove screw covers, screws, and plastic retaining clips if present. Pry up the edges of the panel to remove it (Figures 4 & 5).
Look for screws and pry-out retaining clips to remove. Pry out the edges of the panel to release and remove it (Figure 6).
When routing wire behind or under the dash, always secure it with plastic wire ties. Be sure that the wire doesn't interfere with any moving parts to ensure safe operation of the vehicle.
With that background stuff covered, it's time to get to work. Gather up your gear and tools, maybe a friend and a soda, and give yourself plenty of time.
Set the parking brake and disconnect the negative terminal from your battery to prevent any electrical shorts or shocks.
Mount your amplifier in the location you've chosen.
The power wire from your amp wiring kit (usually 16-20 feet in length) needs to run from the battery, through your car's firewall, through the car's body to the amp. Find an unused grommet in the firewall or one that already has wires or cables passing through it and that has enough room for the power wire to fit through too.
Route the power wire from your amp wiring kit through a hole in your vehicle's firewall, using a grommet or bushing to prevent the insullation from scraping against metal.
If you can't find an existing grommet, you'll have to drill a hole through the firewall. Make sure you don't drill into any electrical or gas lines — check both sides of the firewall. Use a grommet to protect your wire from fraying and shorting as it passes through the hole.
The power wire from your amp wiring kit may have a fuse holder installed. If so, go to Step 5. If not, find a good spot close to your battery to place your fuse-holder (included in the kit) — less than 6" from the battery is best. Be aware: even after a fuse blows, the short stretch of cable between the battery and the fuse holder will still be live and a potential fire hazard in the event of an accident. Anchor the fuse holder to a suitable spot with a screw or cable tie, so it won't hang loose or bounce around.
Fuse installed on power wire, and secured in engine compartment near the battery.
Cut a short piece off the end of the power wire (to cover the distance from the battery to the fuse holder location), and strip the insulation off both ends with a wire stripper. Crimp the terminal ring (included in the kit) onto one end of the short piece of wire, and attach the fuse holder onto the other end. Strip the insulation off the end of the power wire that leads into the passenger compartment, and connect it to the other end of the fuse holder.
When powering multiple amplifiers, you run a single heavy-gauge power cable from your battery to a distribution block, and then connect a lighter-gauge cable from the block to each amplifier. This arrangement minimizes potential noise problems and keeps your installation looking neat. Make sure the main power cable is thick enough that it can handle the total current draw of all the amplifiers.
Check out our amplifier wiring diagram to see how the wiring gets connected in a typical 2-amp system.
Attach the power cable to the positive battery terminal (not directly to the battery post itself). For top-mounted battery posts, the most common way to do this is to crimp a ring terminal onto the end of the power cable (many cables in wiring kits come with it already attached). Remove the battery terminal's nut, slip the power cable's ring over the bolt that secures the battery terminal to the battery post, and replace the nut. For GM vehicles with a side-mount post, we offer terminal adapters that work nicely.
A wire loom provides added protection for your wire against the high heat inside the engine compartment. If your kit includes a wire loom, thread it over the power cable until it reaches the firewall and cut to fit. Thread another piece over the short power wire running from the fuse holder to the battery.
As near to the amplifier's location as possible, find a bolt to your vehicle's metal frame to use for ground. If you can't find a convenient ground screw or bolt, drill a hole for one — be careful not to drill into any wiring, the gas tank, or a gas or brake line. Crimp a ring terminal (usually included with the amp kit) to the short piece of ground cable (also in the kit).
EFX Ultimate Ground Terminal
Scrape away any paint and clean the bolt location thoroughly, and then bolt the terminal tightly to the vehicle's metal chassis. Use a lock washer, a star washer, extra screws, and any other technique or device that'll keep this connection tight, clean, and electrically conducting. Many people even coat the final connection with silicone caulk to prevent corrosion.
Scrape the paint away from the contact point so the ground connection will be bare metal to bare metal.
Improper or loose grounding is the #1 cause of amplifier problems.
The turn-on wire (also called the remote wire) is located behind the stereo. On aftermarket stereos, it's usually a blue and white wire. The remote wire will "tell" your amplifier to turn on whenever the stereo is powered up (usually, whenever the vehicle is turned on). You'll have to remove the stereo to get to this wire. For step-by-step instructions on removing your vehicle's radio, see your vehicle-specific Crutchfield MasterSheet™, or read our Car stereo installation guide.
Locate the remote turn-on lead behind your radio (usually a blue and white wire), and connect the turn-on lead from your amplifier wiring kit to it.
Strip the insulation off a small section of this wire coming from the radio and the turn-on lead that came with your wiring kit and connect them together via solder, a crimp connector, or a Posi-Connector.
The turn-on signal is +12 volts DC. If, like a factory radio, your radio doesn't have a remote turn-on output, then you can get the turn-on signal from your vehicle's fuse box. Because of its low current demand, you can connect your turn-on lead to almost any fused output terminal, like the one for the radio itself for instance, as long as it only powers up when the vehicle's on. Using an Add A Fuse connector plus a 2A to 10A fuse will make this connection easier.
You'll need to route the turn-on lead to your amplifier through the car's body — it's often easiest to route the turn-on wire with the RCA cables (next step) but you can also route it with the power wire after it passes through the firewall. The power and RCA cables should run on opposite sides of the vehicle, to reduce noise — but it won't matter for the turn-on lead's low current.
If your in-dash receiver has preamp (RCA) outputs, connect your RCA patch cables to them. Route the patch cables to the opposite side of the vehicle from the power cable. It's important to separate the patch cables from the power wires as much as possible to avoid potential noise problems. Now you can partially re-install the radio in the dash. Avoid completely re-installing it if you can, in case you need to fix a problem later.
If you're using a factory radio with no RCA outputs, you can get your amplifier's input signals from the factory speaker wiring. The speakers will be getting their signal from the new amplifier — which leaves the radio's outputs available to use for the amp's inputs. There are two ways to do this: get a line output converter (LOC) that'll adjust the speaker-level signal for your amp's input, or get an amplifier with speaker-level inputs. You cut the factory speaker wires behind the radio, and connect the wires coming from the radio to your LOC or amp's inputs.
Scosche SLC4 Line Output Converter
Learn more about line output converters.
Now you have to provide a way for the music to get from your new amp to the speakers. The best way to do that is to run a new speaker wire from each amplifier output to each speaker. Use 14- or 16-gauge wire for speakers, 12- or 14-gauge for subwoofers. Speaker-level signals are not very prone to picking up interference, so it's okay to run your speaker wires near power cables.
You'll have to run each wire for your door speakers through the rubber gasket or boot around the hinge, to protect the wires from the weather or from getting pinched in the door. There may be a Molex plug or a similar obstruction blocking the way, but you can usually find a place to drill a hole through it big enough to fit your wire through. Disconnect or cut the factory speaker wires and connect the new wires directly to each speaker terminal.
It is important that you keep the polarity of your speaker wiring straight. This means that each positive terminal of the amp connects to a positive terminal of a speaker — and the same goes for the negative terminals. This ensures that your speakers will operate in mechanical phase — all the speaker cones moving the same direction with the same kind of signal — and will sound balanced when playing together. The positive and negative terminals of each speaker should be labeled, but if not, the positive terminal will usually be wider than the negative terminal.
Another and much more convenient way to send the powered signal from the amp to your speakers is to run the speaker wires to the harness that’s behind your receiver, where all your car’s speaker connections are accessible in one place. You cut each speaker wire from the receiver's harness and reconnect it to a speaker wire coming from the amp. Then, the signal can flow from the amp to the speakers by way of the vehicle's original factory wiring. This technique will work fine in systems with up to 75 watts RMS of power per channel — but for more powerful systems it would be better to run new speaker wire directly from the amp to each speaker.
Check out How to connect an amplifier to a factory stereo to see how this can be done.
Neatly drape or trim each wire and connect it to the amp. Make gentle curves with the wires, not sharp bends that could pinch. Many people cut small slits in their vehicle's carpeting and run their wires underneath, for stealthy installations that look factory-neat. A wiring snake comes in handy for this. Tape your wires to the snake, fish it under and through to where you want your wires to go, and pull them on through.
RCA cables routed through slits in the vehicle's carpet, and connected to the amplifier's signal inputs
Check all of your wiring, from the battery and receiver to the amp and speakers, making sure every connection is tight and secure with no stray wire strands laying out that could cause a short circuit. Especially, check that the ground connection is tight and secure. Set all the amplifier's gains to minimum, and turn off all the filters and any bass boost or EQ it may have. See that the main fuse is properly installed in its holder. Then, reconnect your car's negative battery cable.
Turn on your car, then turn on the radio. Verify that the amplifier powered up (there'll probably be an indicator light on it somewhere). Play some music and turn the volume up just loud enough to hear. Now verify that sound is coming from each speaker and/or subwoofer in your system. If everything sounds right, you can finish re-installing the stereo and all your vehicle's paneling, and then move ahead to step 12.
If things aren't working as they should, see the Troubleshooting section below.
Setting your amplifier's gain, or input sensitivity, matches the amp's input level with the receiver's output level, resulting in maximum distortion-free music and minimum background noise.
Setting the amp's gain
For a detailed explanation of how to do this, read our article about setting the gains on a 4-channel amplifier. If you’re installing an amp for a subwoofer, read How to tune your subs. The approach is the same, we’ve just tailored the explanation to each situation.
Enjoy your new system.
Sometimes things just don't work like we expect them to right from the start. Here are some of the most common problems that can occur when installing an amplifier.
If you're using a factory radio, it may need its anti-theft security code reset. If so, you can usually find the code and resetting procedure in the vehicle's owner's manual, online, or from a car dealership service department (be prepared to prove you own the vehicle).
In order to properly and safely troubleshoot a malfunctioning electrical system you'll need to use a multimeter to measure voltages and check continuity. Crutchfield sells the Install Bay 3320 digital multimeter, but if you're in a hurry, you can probably find one at your local hardware or electrical supply store.
We have assumed you picked equipment that your car's electrical system can handle. It would be wildly inappropriate, for example, to try to run 5,000 watts RMS worth of amplifiers in a compact car with a small-capacity alternator. Such a system would quickly bog down the car's system and eventually burn out the alternator. Some people, especially competitors, upgrade their alternators to accommodate their high-power systems.
One common symptom of over-powering is the dimming of lights when bass notes hit. If your lights dim just a little during heavy bass passages, you might benefit by installing a capacitor on the bass amp's power cable. Otherwise, check out Headlights dim when the music plays to help solve over-powering issues.
This post is for TJ documentation like Factory Service Manuals Etc..
A while back I was able to find the FSM for my 2006 TJ. I decided to look at the same website I have used to download FMS to see if I can find others. I hit the jackpot so I am sharing :beer-toast1:
Please if there are any issues or they are inaccurate let me know.
#I haven't looked in a while, but there may be some diagrams of the Dana 44 in the FSM. The Dana 44 axle (along with most any solid axle) is about the simplest thing you can have underneath a vehicle (as far as axles are concerned). There really isn't anything to it other than an axle tube, axle shafts, carriers, ring and pinions, and some other parts. But it's really, really basic. One of the things I love so much about TJs!
#I've been able to download the 2000 TJ parts list, but have been unable to download the 2000 TJ service manual. Others have opened up OK (1999, 2002) but not the one I'm looking for.
Tried again with a different browser, it worked fine. Thank you for finding and posting these manuals for us be download.
Autosparks Kit Car Wiring Looms
Specifically designed as self-build these wiring harnesses allow ease of installation, with only the fuse boxes and relays pre-wired this product allows the installer to route the harness to suit their specific project vehicle. They are ideal for installations using toggle / rocker switches / original vehicle switchgear and a traditional engine configuration and aimed at those who wish to build their own loom to the specific dimensions of their vehicle.
The semi-assembled kit car harnesses as well as being completely road legal, have all of the mandatory functionality to meet current Individual Vehicle Approval (IVA) Basic requirements, which is a must for any amateur vehicle build project. Designed for installers who have a reasonable understanding of vehicle electrics, all harnesses are supplied with a comprehensive wiring booklet to aid your installation.
Standard Front and Rear Engined Kits
The standard kit is designed as an entry level harness for both amateur built kit car installations or track day/competition specific projects, with simple additions to meet current motorsport regulations. Pre-assembled in modern automotive thinwall cable with a single 8-way panel mount fuse box and the required relays (with bases) to support the looms functionality.
The Front engine kit can be found here while the rear engine is here.
Specific features: -
Headlights via Relays
Radiator Fan via a Relay (Ignition Switched Thermostatically Controlled)
Two-Speed Windscreen Wipers with Washer
Electric Fuel Pump
2nd Rear Fog Light Supply to meet competition requirements
All Earth wiring included
Front Spot/Fog Lights (via Relay)
12V Accessory Socket
Move Brake Switch - Standard Position at Front
Remove Heater - For vehicles without a windscreen
Remove Wipers/Washer - For vehicles without a windscreen
Heated Front Screen
FIA Cut-off - Ring with details
ECU - Ring with details
Motorcycle Engine - Ring with details
Deluxe Front and Rear Engined Kits
The deluxe kit has additional features to the standard kit that are designed to improve the experience required for your vehicle, it adds increased fusing common in modern production vehicles, all lighting circuits are fused separately, the cooling fan is fused and there is an addition of an accessory socket for the use of Satnav and/or mobile phone charging. Pre-assembled in modern automotive thinwall cable with two 6-way fuse boxes and the required relays (with bases) to support the looms functionality.
The Front engine kit can be found here while the rear engine is here.
Specific features: -
Sidelight circuits separately fused
Headlight circuits separately fused
Headlights via Relays
Fused Radiator Fan via a Relay (Ignition Switched Thermostatically Controlled)
Two-Speed Windscreen Wipers with Washer
Electric Fuel Pump
Ignition Switched 12-volt Accessory Socket
2nd Rear Fog Light Supply to meet competition requirements
All Earth wiring included
Front Spot/Fog Lights (via Relay)
Move Brake Switch - Standard Position at Front
Remove Heater - For vehicles without a windscreen
Remove Wipers/Washer - For vehicles without a windscreen
Heated Front Screen - Ring with details
FIA Cut-off - Ring with details
ECU - Ring with details
Motorcycle Engine - Ring with details
With regards to these diagrams it’s important to note that the black dots represented in the first diagram (see at the bottom of page) means that the wires are connected.
For information sake, when a wire is depicted in a diagram that it looks like it’s ‘hopping over’ it means that they’re not connected in real life.
To connect a wire as shown in the diagram, you can cut and splice or use 3M Scotchlok connectors that crimp onto the wire to make a connection.
Alternatively, you can strip back the insulation and wrap the other wire around it and solder the connection with electrical tape or heat shrink tubing. You can also use wire nuts to secure the connection, crimp caps or terminal strips.
These are thanks to PTCruzr!!!
Neon Accent Tube Wiring Diagram #1
(for neons WITHOUT external transformer). NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground.
Neon Accent Tube Wiring Diagram #2
(for neons WITH external transformer). NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground.
Neon Underbody Kit Diagram #1
(for kits WITHOUT an external transformer). NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground.
Neon Underbody Kit Diagram #2
(for kits WITH an external transformer). NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground
Neon Washer Nozzles Diagram
NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground.
Neon Pedals Diagram
Neon Pedals Diagram
EL Wire Diagram
NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground.
LED Wiring Diagram
Notice the load resistor that IS needed. Also notice that the Anode on the LED is connected to positive. The Anode is the LONGER lead.
NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground
Similar LED Wiring Diagram
Here’s a similar LED wiring diagram showing 4 seperate LED’s (NOT connected). Notice the load resistor that IS needed for each LED. Also notice that the Anode on the LED is connected to positive. The Anode is the LONGER lead. NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground.
Multiple LED’s Wiring Diagram
Notice that NO load resistor is needed. Also notice the Anode and Cathode connections. The Anode is the LONGER lead. The LEDs MUST be connected in series, NOT in parallel.
NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground
12 LED’s Wiring Diagram
Notice that NO load resistor is needed. Also notice the Anode and Cathode connections. The Anode is the LONGER lead. The LEDs MUST be connected in series, NOT in parallel.
NOTE: If using a light up switch connect the 3rd connection on the switch to ground
TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................. 32. HEAT LOSS ........................................................................................................................................ 33. LOCATION OF UNIT........................................................................................................................... 34. AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS ...............................................................................................35. COMBUSTION AIR ............................................................................................................................. 46. CHIMNEY VENTING ........................................................................................................................... 49. OPTIONAL SIDE WALL VENTING..................................................................................................... 610. FAN / LIMIT CONTROL .................................................................................................................... 611. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS......................................................................................................... 612. HUMIDIFIER ...................................................................................................................................... 613. PIPING INSTALLATION ................................................................................................................... 714. OIL FILTER ....................................................................................................................................... 715. OIL BURNER NOZZLES................................................................................................................... 716. OIL BURNER ADJUSTMENT ........................................................................................................... 717. BURNER ELECTRODES .................................................................................................................. 718. BURNER PRIMARY (SAFETY) CONTROL...................................................................................... 719. COMBUSTION CHAMBER ............................................................................................................... 720. CIRCULATING AIR BLOWER .......................................................................................................... 821. MAINTENANCE AND SERVICE........................................................................................................ 822. OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS.......................................................................................................... 9A.1 OIL BURNER AIR ADJUSTMENT ..................................................................................................11A.2 BURNER ELECTRODES ................................................................................................................ 11A.3 START UP ....................................................................................................................................... 11OPERATION OF OIL BURNER ............................................................................................................. 16R7184 DETAILED SEQUENCE OF OPERATION (FIGURE 3) ............................................................. 17R7184 LED DIAGNOSTIC LIGHT.......................................................................................................... 20FINAL CHECK OUT ............................................................................................................................... 26PARTS LISTING: HIGHBOY MODEL: HTL 100C................................................................................. 28
240005126 Rev A 10/27/2005 3IMPORTANT: SAVE THESE INSTRUCTIONS FOR FUTURE REFERENCE 1. INTRODUCTIONPlease read these instructions completely and carefully before installing and operating the furnace. MODEL HTLModel HTL is an oil fired forced air up-flow furnace with an output capacity range of 79,000 BTU/Hr. to 119,000 BTU/Hr. DO NOT USE GASOLINE, CRANK CASE OIL, OR ANY OIL CONTAINING GASOLINE.All models are CSA listed, (NRTL/C) for use with No. 1 (Stove) and No. 2 (Furnace) Oil. Please refer to the tables in Appendix A for performance and dimensional data. In Canada, the installation of the furnace and related equipment shall be installed in accordance with the regulations of CAN/CSA - B139, Installation Code For Oil Burning Equipment, as well as in accordance with local codes. In the United States of America, the installation of the furnace and related equipment shall be installed in accordance with the regulations of NFPA No. 31, Installation of Oil Burning Equipment, as well as in accordance with local codes. Regulations prescribed in the National Codes and Local regulations take precedence over the general instructions provided on this installation manual. When in doubt, please consult your local authorities. All models are shipped assembled and pre-wired. The furnace should be carefully inspected for damage when being unpacked.2. HEAT LOSS The maximum hourly heat loss for each heated space shall be calculated in accordance with the procedures described in the manuals of the Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada (HRAI), or by any other method which is suitable for local conditions, provided the results obtained are in substantial agreement with and not less than those obtained using the procedure described in the manual. In the United States, Manual J. titled, "Load Calculation" published by the Air Conditioning Contractors of America, describes a suitable procedure for calculating the maximum hourly heat loss.3. LOCATION OF UNIT The furnace should be located such that the flue connection to the chimney is short, direct and consists of as few elbows as possible. When possible, the unit should be centralized with respect to the supply and return air ductwork. A central location minimizes the trunk duct sizing. All models may be installed on combustible floors. The minimum installation clearances are listed in Table 1. Table 1: Clearances – (Inches)Clearance to Combustibles HTL Location Up flow Top 1 Bottom 0 S/A Plenum 1 Rear 1 Sides 1 Front 24 Flue Pipe 9 Enclosure Alcove 4. AIR CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS If the furnace is used in conjunction with air conditioning, the furnace shall be installed in parallel with or upstream from the evaporator coil to avoid condensation in the heat exchanger. In a parallel installation, the dampers or air controlling means must prevent chilled air from entering the furnace. If the dampers are manually operated, there must be a means of control to prevent the operation of either system unless the dampers are in the full heat or full cool position. The air heated by the furnace shall not pass through a refrigeration unit unless the unit is specifically approved for such service. The blower speed must be checked and adjusted to compensate for the pressure drop caused by the evaporator coil. Refer to Appendix B for recommended wiring and electrical connections of the air conditioning controls.
5. COMBUSTION AIR If the furnace is installed in a confined area such as a small utility room, two openings must be provided connecting to a well-ventilated space (full basement, living room or other room opening thereto, but not a bedroom or bathroom). One opening shall be located above the level of the upper vent opening and one opening below the combustion air inlet opening in the front of the furnace. Each opening shall have a minimum free area of 1½ square inches per 1,000 Btu/h of total input rating of all appliances installed in the room. For furnaces located in buildings of unusually tight construction, such as those with high quality weather stripping, caulking, windows and doors, or storm sashed windows, or where basement windows are well sealed, a permanent opening communicating with a well ventilated attic or with the outdoors shall be provided, using a duct if necessary. The duct opening shall have a free area of 1½ square inches per 1,000 Btu/h of total input rating of all appliances to be installed. When a furnace is installed in a full basement, infiltration is normally adequate to provide air for combustion and draft operation. Furnace rooms under 65m³ (700 ft³) should automatically be treated as confined space.6. CHIMNEY VENTING The flue pipe should be as short as possible with horizontal pipes sloping upward toward the chimney at a rate of one-quarter inch to the foot. The flue pipe should not be smaller in cross sectional area than the flue collar on the furnace. The flue pipe should connect to the chimney such that the flue pipe extends into, and terminates flush with the inside surface of the chimney liner. Seal the joint between the pipe and the lining. The chimney outlet should be at least two feet above the highest point of a peaked roof. All unused chimney openings should be closed. Chimneys must conform to local, provincial or state codes, or in the absence of local regulations, to the requirements of the National Building Code. NOTE: THE FURNACE IS APPROVED FOR USE WITH TYPE L VENT OR EQUIVALENT. THE FURNACE MUST BE CONNECTED TO A FLUE HAVING SUFFICIENT DRAFT AT ALL TIMES TO ENSURE SAFE AND PROPER OPERATION OF THE APPLIANCE. NOTE: THE OVER-FIRE DRAFT PRESSURE IS SUFFICIENT WITH A -0.02 IN. W.C. READING MEASURED AT THE BURNER MOUNTING PLATE. The flue pipe must not pass through any floor or ceiling, but may pass through a wall where suitable fire protection provisions have been installed. Refer to the latest edition of CAN/CSA B-139 for rules governing the installation of oil burning equipment. In the United States, refer to the latest edition of NFPA 31 for regulations governing the installation of oil burning equipment. See appendix A for burner set-up. 7. INSTRUCTIONS FOR OIL FIRED BLOCKED VENT SAFETY KIT FOR CHIMNEY VENT USE ONLY NOTE: REQUIRED FOR CANADIAN INSTALLATIONS, OPTIONAL FOR UNITED STATES INSTALLATIONS. A qualified technician must install this device in accordance with this manufacturer’s installation instructions. Wiring must be in accordance with the Canadian Electrical Code and applicable local codes. READ THESE INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY AND COMPLETELY BEFORE INSTALLING THIS CONTROL. DO NOT RESET THE SAFETY DEVICE OR RESTART THE APPLIANCE UNLESS THE CAUSE FOR ITS ACTIVATION HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED AND CORRECTED BY A QUALIFIED TECHNICIAN. ENSURE THE SWITCH AND APPLIANCE HAS BEEN SERVICED BY A QUALIFIED TECHNICIAN PRIOR TO PLACING BACK INTO SERVICE. A QUALIFIED TECHNICIAN MUST PERFORM ANNUAL INSPECTION AND CLEANING.Wiring must be in accordance with the current Canadian Electrical Code and any other applicable federal, provincial and local code requirements. If installed within the United States, wiring must be in accordance with the current National Electrical Codeand any other applicable federal, state and local code requirements.
Fuel Filter Replacement Estimate for Lexus RX300
Fuel Filter Replacement Service
What is the fuel filter and how does it work?
The fuel filter is made of cellulose or synthetic-based filter media that traps extremely tiny contaminants, such as rust particles and dirt, present in the fuel as it flows from the fuel tank to the fuel injectors. The filter media is sealed within a cylindrical shaped housing that looks like a tiny soda can. You will most often find the fuel filter plumbed into the high-pressure fuel supply line beneath the car, right next to a sturdy frame rail. Some fuel filters, particularly on diesel-powered vehicles, have water traps as well. Some newer cars do not have serviceable fuel filters as the filter is built into the fuel pump located in the fuel tank.
When to consider replacing the fuel filter:
Scheduled maintenance. The most common reason to change the fuel filter — your vehicle’s maintenance schedule may specify a filter change interval.
Fuel contamination. If any foreign fluids, bad fuel, or water enters into the fuel system mistakenly, the fuel filter should be replaced.
Fuel system repairs. If the fuel pump has been replaced, work has been performed on or in the gas tank, or the fuel injectors have been cleaned or replaced, always install a new fuel filter. Major engine repairs, or engine replacement, also require a new filter.
Leaks. There should be zero leakage of fuel, whether liquid or vapor, in the fuel system. Leaks at the fuel filter connections might necessitate not only a new fuel filter but also new O-rings in the push-on connections to the fuel filter.
Warning light indication. Diesel powered vehicles may be equipped with a water-sensor warning light circuit to signal the driver if excessive water has accumulated in the fuel filter. The water will have to be drained and the filter possibly serviced or replaced.
How do mechanics replace the fuel filter?
A clogged fuel filter that is integral to the fuel pump must be removed with the fuel pump from the fuel tank to perform service.
For all other vehicles, the procedure begins with raising the vehicle and supporting it with steel jack stands.
The fuel system is depressurized so the filter can be removed from the high-pressure fuel line without gas spraying out.
The in-and-out connectors to the filter are removed and the filter is removed from the fuel line.
The new filter is installed using a small amount of oil on the O-rings to ease re-installation of the quick connect fittings. The fuel system is then checked for leaks while the engine is running.
Is it safe to drive with a fuel filter problem?
Yes, so long as the fuel filter is not leaking. If there is a leak, have it repaired before driving the car. If clogging is suspected and potentially causing engine operating problems, have the cause investigated and resolved at your earliest convenience. In extreme cases, a very old filter that may be plugged could disintegrate, allowing what were trapped contaminants to reach the fuel injectors and causing additional problems.
When replacing the fuel filter keep in mind:
A plugged fuel filter can be ruled out using pressure and volume tests on the fuel system. Given enough elapsed mileage though, all fuel filter replacements should be done as basic maintenance, and so complicated tests are not necessary if the filter is already known to be old.
Consult the vehicle maintenance schedule to determine when to replace the fuel filter.
If you have bought contaminated gas, once all fuel system repairs are made, always install a new filter.
Gasoline is perishable and will eventually degrade into compounds that will damage the fuel system. Generally, if a car has sat unused with gas in the tank for more than 3 to 6 months, the gas should be drained and the fuel filter replaced.
Connector - General information
For repairing wire harnesses, the wire harnesses listed in step 1 are only offered as complete units, without exchanging individual connectors.
For repairing or replacing connectors on wire harnesses which do not have to be completely replaced, the correct procedure is listed under Step 2
1. Wire harnesses which are replaced only as a complete unit.
1.1. Wire harness for door and wire harness for door trim panel
See: Removal and Replacement/Removing and Installing Wiring Harness For Door
1.2. Wire harness for centre console
See: Removal and Replacement/Removing and Installing Wiring Harness For Centre Console
1.3. Wire harness for number plate light
See: Removal and Replacement/Removing and Installing Wiring Harness For Number Plate Light
1.4. Wire harness for glove compartment
See: Lighting and Horns/Courtesy Lamp/Glove Box Lamp Switch/Service and Repair
1.5. Wire harness for engine
See: Removal and Replacement/Removing and Installing Wiring Harness For Engine
1.6. Wire harness for battery wiring
See: Removal and Replacement/Removing and Installing Wiring Harness For Battery Wiring
1.7. Antenna leads
See: Accessories and Optional Equipment/Antenna/Antenna, Radio/Antenna Cable/Service and Repair
INFORMATION: Only in the coupe.
1.8. Wire harness for rear spoiler
See: Removal and Replacement/Removing and Installing Wiring Harness For Rear Lid
2. Connectors contained in the Repair kit for harnesses NR.155-1 and can be replaced individually.
CAUTION: Using plug-in contacts made of different materials
Oxidation of plug-in contacts
Only use the plug-in contacts listed in the wiring diagram for the corresponding plug connection. Always plug gold contacts together with gold
The wiring diagrams can be displayed using the PIWIS Tester P 9718.
For repairing wire harnesses individual connectors are offered in a Repair kit for harnesses NR.155-1. In this Repair kit for harnesses NR.155-1,
connectors are contained primarily that are installed in crash and external areas.
1. Bmw 3 Series M3, 3181, 3231, 3251, 3281 Sedan, Coupe and Convertible 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996,1997, 1998 Bentley, Publishers Cambridge, Massachusetts Versión electrónica licenciada a Hernan Fulco / email@example.com / tel: 54(11)4855-3088 Buenos Aires // Argentina
2. B-1 ROBERT BENTLEY, INC. I AUTOMOTIVE PUBLISHERS Information that makes 1734 Massachusetts Avenue the differenceoCambridge,MA 02138 USA 800-423-45951617-547-4170 www.rb.com e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org WARNING-Important Safety Notice Technical Contact Information We value your feedback. Technical comments and suggestions are helpful to us. Please send your comments andthoughtsto Bentley Publishers e-mail: tech .bmw@rb .com From time to time, updates may be made to this manual. A listingof updates can be found on the web Iat www .rb .com/updates Do not use this manual unless you arefamiliarwith basic automotive repair procedures and safe workshop practices. This manual illustrates the workshop procedures required for most service work. It is not a substituteforfui¡ and up-to-date information from the vehicie manufacturer orfor propertraining as an automotive technician. Note that it is not possible for us to anticipate al¡ of theways orconditions under which vehicles may be serviced or to provide cautions as to all of the possible hazards that may result. The vehicie manufacturer will continue to issue service information updates and parts retrofits after the editorial closing of this manual. Some of those updates and retrofits will apply to procedures and specifications in this manual. We regretthat we cannot supply updates to purchasers of this manual. We have endeavored to ensure the accuracy of the information in this manual. Please note, however, that considering the vast quantity and the complexity ofthe service information involved, we cannotwarrantthe accuracy orcompleteness ofthe information contained in this manual. FORTHESE REASONS,NEITHERTHE PUBLISHER NORTHE AUTHOR MAKES ANYWARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,THATTHE INFORMATION IN THISBOOK IS FREE OF ERRORSOR OMISSIONS, AND WE EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMTHEIMPLIEDWARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITYANDOF FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, EVEN IF THE PUBLISHER OR AUTHOR NAVE BEEN ADVISED OF A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, AND EVEN IF A PARTICULAR PURPOSE IS INDICATED IN THE MANUAL. THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR ALSO DISCLAIM ALL LIABILITY FOR DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGESTHAT RESULT FROM ANY USE OF THE EXAMPLES, INSTRUCTIONS OR OTHER INFORMATION IN THIS BOOK.IN NO EVENT SHALL OUR LIABILITYWHETHER INTORT, CONTRACT OR OTHERWISE EXCEEDTHE COST OFTHIS MANUAL. Your common sense and goodjudgment arecrucial to safe and successful service work. Read procedures through before starting them. Think about whether the condition of your car, your leve¡ of mechanical skill, or your leve¡ of reading comprehension might result in orcontribute in some way to an occurrence which might cause you injury, damage your car, or result in an unsafe repair. lf you have doubts for these or other reasons about your ability to perform safe repair work on your car, have the work done at an authorized BMW dealer or other qualified shop. Part numbers listed in this manual are for identification purposes only, not for ordering. Always check with your authorized BMW dealer to verify part numbers and availability before beginning service work that may requíre new parts. Before attempting any work on your BMW, read the wamings and cautions on pages vi¡ and vi¡¡, and any waming or caution that accompanies a procedure in the service manual. Review the warnings and cautions on pages vi¡ and viü each time you prepare to work on your BMW. Special tools required to perform certain service operations areidentified in the manual and are recommendedforuse. Use of tools other than those recommended in this service manual may be detrimental to the car's safe operation as well as the safety of the person servicing the car. Copies of this manual may be purchased from most automotive accessories and parts dealers specializing in BMW automobiles, from selected booksellers, or directly from the publisher by mail. The publisher encourages comments from the reader of this manual. These communications have been and will be carefully considered in the preparation of this and other manuals. Please write to Robert Bentley, Inc., Publishers at the address listed on the top of this page. This manual was published by Robert Bentley, Inc., Publishers. BMW has not reviewed and does not vouch forthe accuracy of the technical specifications and procedures described in this manual. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data BMW 3 Series Service Manual M3, 318i, 323i, 3251, 328i, Sedan, Coupe and Convertible: 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-8376-0326-9 1 . BMW 3 Series automobile--Maintenance and repair--Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Robert Bentley, inc. TL215.13251356 1999 629.28' 722--cic21 99-17179 CIP Bentley Stock No. B398 Editorial closing 01/99 0302010099 1098765432 The paper used in this publication is acid free and meets the requirements of the National Standard for Information Sciences- Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. O ©Copyright 1999 Robert Bentley, Inc. All rights reserved. All information contained in this manual is based on the information available to the publisher at the time of editorialclosing. The right is reserved to make changes at any time without notice. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior writtenconsent of the publisher. This includes text, figures, and tables. All rights reserved under Berne and Pan-American Copyright conventions. Manufactured in the United States of America
3. General Data and 010 FundamentalsfortheDo-lt-YourselfOwner Maintenance 020 Maintenance Program Engine Transmission Suspension, Steering and Brakes 4 Body 100 Engine-General 110 Engine Removal and Installation 113 Cylinder Head Removal and Installation 116 Cylinder Head and Valvetrain 117 Camshaft Timing Chain 119 Lubrication System 200 Transmission-General 210 Clutch 230 Manual Transmission 510 Exterior Trim, Bumpers 520 Seats Bo y Equipment 512 DoorWTdws 540 nrt 513 InteriorTrim 541 Convertible Top 515 Central Locking and Anti-Theft 600 Electrical System-General 620 Instruments Electrical S stem 610 Electrical Component Locations 630 Exterior Lighting 611 Wipers and Washers 640 Heating and Air Conditioning 6 612 Switches and Electrical Accessories 650 Radio Equipment and 720 SeatBelts Accessories 721 Airbag System (SRS) Electrical Wiring Diagrams Foreword...............................................................................................................v Warnings and Cautions . .. ..... . . ...... .. .. .. .... ......... .. .... .. .. .. ....... . . .... .. ......... .. .. .. .. .........vii Index .. .. .. .. .. .. ....... .. .... .. .. .. .. .... ......... .. .. .... ......... .. .. .... .. .... ...... . .... .. .. ....... back of book 300 Suspension, Steering and 330 Rear Suspension Brakes-General 331 Final Drive 310 Front Suspension 340 Brakes 320 Steering and Wheel Alignment 400 Body-General 411 Doors 410 Fenders, Engine Hood 412 Trunk Lid 120 Ignition System 121 Battery, Starter, Alternator 130 Fue¡ Injection 160 Fuel Tank and Fuel Pump 170 Radiator and Cooling System 180 Exhaust System 240 Automatic Transmission 250 Gearshift Linkage 260 Driveshaft
4. BMW SERVICE MANUUAS BMW7 Series Service Manual: 1988-1994 7351, 735iL, 740i, 740iL, 750iL Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0328-5 BMW3 Series Service Manual: 1992-1998 M3,3181,323i,325i,328i, Sedan, Coupe and Convertible Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0326-9 Glory Days: When Horsepower and BMWZ3 Service Manual: 1996-1998 Passion Ruled Detroit 4-cylinder and 6-cylinder models Jim Wangers ISBN 0-8376-0208-4 Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0327-7 Alfa Romeo Owner's BibleTM BMW3-Series Service Manual: 1984-1990 Pat Braden with foreword by Don Black 3181, 325,325e(es), 325i(is), and 325i ISBN 0-8376-0707-9 Convertible Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0325-0 Ford F-Series Pickup Owner's BibleTM Moses Ludel ISBN 0-8376-0152-5 BMW5-Series Service Manual: 1989-1995 5251, 530i, 535i, 540i including Touring Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0319-6 BMW5-Series Service Manual: 1982-1988 528e, 5331, 535i, 535is Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0318-8 ENTHUSIAST TITLES Complete Roundel 1969-1998:30 Years of the Magazine of the BMWCar Club of America (CD-ROM) ISBN 0-8376-0322-6 AFrench Kiss With Death: Steve McQueen and the Making of Le Mans Michael Keyser ISBN 0-8376-0234-3 The Speed Merchants: AJourney Through The World ofMotor Racing,1969-72 Michael Keyser ISBN 0-8376-0232-7 Mustang 5.0Technical Reference & Performance Handbook Al Kirschenbaum ISBN 0-8376-0210-6 Maximum Boost: Designing, Testing, and InstallingTurbocharger Systems Corky Bell ISBN 0-8376-0160-6 Volkswagen Sport Tuning for Street and Competition Per SchroederISBN 0-8376-0161-4 Sports Car and Competition Driving PaulFrére with foreword by Phil Hill ISBN 0-8376-0202-5 Automotive Books From Robert Bentley GTI, Golf, and Jetta Service Manual: 1985- The Design and Tuning of Competition 1992 Gasoline, Diesel, and Turbo Diesel, Engines PhilipH. Smith, 6th edition revised by including 16V Robert Bentley David N. Wenner ISBN 0-8376-0140-1 ISBN 0-8376-0342-0 Going Faster: The Skip Barber Racing Corrado Official Factory Repair Manual: School Carl Lopez ISBN 0-8376-0227-0 1990-1994 Volkswagen United States 9M-f, Ir- Win non Alexander with foreword ISBN 0-8376-0387-0 by MarkMartín ISBN 0-8376-0070-7 Passat Service Manual: 1990-1993, The Technique of Motor Racing Piero includingWagon Volkswagen United States Taruffi withforeword byJuan ManuelFangio ISBN 0-8376-0378-1 ISBN 0-8376-0228-9 Cabriolet and Scirocco Service Manual: Race Car Aerodynamics 1985-1993, including 16V Joseph Katz ISBN 0-8376-0142-8 Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0362-5 The Scientific Design of Exhaust and Volkswagen Fox Service Manual: 1987- Intake Systems PhilipH. Smith andJohn C. 1993, including GL, GL Sport and Wagon Morrison ISBN 0-8376-0309-9 Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0363-3 Volkswagen Model Documentation Rabbit, Scirocco, Jetta Service Manual: Joachim Kuch ISBN 0-8376-0078-2 1980-1984 Gasoline Models, including Volkswagen Beetle: Portrait of a Legend Pickup Truck, Convertible, and GTIRobert Edwin Baaske ISBN 0-8376-0162-2 Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0183-5 Jeep Owner's BibleTM Moses Ludel ISBN 0-8376-0154-1 Eurovan Official Factory RepairManual: MANUUAS Volkswagen Inspection/Maintenance (I/M) Emission Test Handbook:1980-1997 Volkswagen ofAmerica ISBN 0-8376-0394-3 Rabbit, Jetta Service Manual: 1977-1984 Diesel Models, including Pickup Truck and Turbo Diesel Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0184-3 Super Beetle, Beetle and Karmann Ghia Official Service Manual Type 1:1970-1979 Volkswagen United States ISBN 0-8376-0096-0 Beetle and Karmann Ghia Official Service Manual Type 1:1966-1969 Volkswagen United States ISBN 0-8376-0416-8Harley-Davidson Evolution VTwin Owner's BibleTM Moses Ludel ISBN 0-8376-0146-0 Audi 100, A6 Official Factory Repair Manual: 1992-1997, including S4, S6, quattro and Wagon models. Toyota Truck &Land Cruiser Owner's Audi ofAmerica. ISBN 0-8376-0374-9 BibleTM Moses Ludel ISBN 0-8376-0159-2 Audi 80, 90, Coupe Quattro Official AUDI SERVICE MANUUAS The Racing Driver DenisJenkinson Factory Repair Manual: 1988-1992 ISBN 0-8376-0201-7 including 80 Quattro, 90 Quattro and 20-valve models Audi ofAmerica Unbeatable BMW: EightyYears of FUEL INJECTION ISBN 0-8376-0367-6 Engineering and Motorsport Success Ford Fuel Injection and Electronic Engine Audi 100, 200 Official Factory RepairJeremy Walton ISBN 0-8376-0206-8 Charles O Probst, SAE Manua1:1988-1991Audi ofAmericaControl: 1788-1993 . BMW6 Series Enthusiast's CompanionTM ISBN 0-8376-0301-3 ISBN 0-8376-0372-2 Jeremy W.11ISBN 0-8376-0149-5 Ford Fuel Injection and Electronic Engine Audi 50005 5000CS Official Fa,ctory BMWEnthusiast's CompanionTM BMW Control: 1980-1987 Charles O. Probst, SAE Repair Manual: 1984-1988 Gasoline, Car Club ofAmerica ISBN 0-8376-0321-8 ISBN 0-8376-0302-1 Turbo, and Turbo Diesel, includingWagon BMWNotecards Series 1 Photography by Bosch Fuel In1ection and Engne and Quattro Audi ofAmerica ISBN 0-8376-i Klaus Schnitzer ISBN 0-8376-0211-4 Management Charles O. Probst, SAE 0370-6 ISBN 0-8376-0300-5 Audi 5000, 50005 Official Factory Repair Manual: 1977-1983 Gasoline and Turbo VOLKSWAGEN OFFICIAL SERVICE Gasoline, Diesel and Turbo Diesel MANUUAS Audi ofAmerica ISBN0-8376-0352-8 New Beetle Service Manual: 1998-1999 Audi 40005, 4000CS, and Coupe GT Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0385-4 Official Factory Repair Manual: 1984-1987 including Quattro and Quattro Turbo Audi Jetta, Golf, GTI, Cabrio Service Manual: ofAmerica ISBN 0-8376-0373-0 1993-early 1999, including VR6 and TDI Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0366-8 SAAB OFFICIAL SERVICE 1992-1999 Volkswagen ofAmerica Saab 90016 Valve OfficialService Manual:ISBN 0-8376-0335-8 19851993 Robert Bentl ISBN 0837603129-ey--- Saab 900 8 Valve Official Service Manual: 1981-1988 RobertBentleyISBN0-8376-0310-2 Passat Official Factory Repair Manual: VOLVO SERVICE MANUAL 1995-1997 Volkswagen ofAmerica Volve240 Service Manual: 1983-1993 ISBN 0-8376-0380-3 Robert Bentley ISBN 0-8376-0285-8 Robert Bentley has published service manuals and automobilebooks since 1950. Please write Robert Bentley, Inc., Publishers, at 1734 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138, visit ourweb síte at http://www.rb.com, or call 1-800-423-4595 fora free copyofour completecatalog, including titles and service manuals for Jaguar, Triumph, Austin-Healey, MG, and other cars.
5. Foreword This service manual covers 1992 through 1998 BMW 3 Series models, and is specifically de- signed to cover only those models built for sale in the United States. BMW, and most accessories and parts sellers specializing in BMWs, refer to the 3 Series cars covered by this manual as the E36 model. The code E36 is BMW's internal code for the basic plat- form shared by al¡ of the cars covered bythis manual. Exceptfor the engine and afew other compo- nents, the models covered by this manual share many of same components such as suspension parts, body panels, and the interior pieces. When ordering parts, especiallybody parts, knowing the E36 code may be helpful. BMW also uses an interna¡ code for the engines used in the 3 Series models. Consult the text in the 100 Engine-General repair group of this manual fora complete listing of engine codes. Engine - code information is primarily used internally by BMW, but may be helpful if you have access to BMW technical information . Forthe BMWownerwith basic mechanical skills, this manual gives detailed maintenance and re- pair information. In addition, the BMW owner who has no intention of working on his or her own car will find that owning and reading this manual will make it possible to be better informed and to dis- cuss repairs more intelligently with a professional technician . This manual has been prepared from the repair information that BMWprovides to its factory-trained technicians and has been developed primarily with the do-it-yourself BMW owner in mind . The aim throughout has been clarity and un- derstanding with practical descriptions, step-by-step procedures, and accurate specifications. The BMWowner intending to do maintenance and repair should have aset of tools including a set of metric wrenches and sockets, screwdrivers, a torque wrench, and feeler gauges, since these ba- sic tools will be used to do the majority of the maintenance and repair procedures described in this manual. This manual includes detailed information on these basic tools and other tips for the begin- ner in the first section of the manual, entitled 010 Fundamentals for the Do-It-Yourself Owner. For some of the repairs described in this manual, BMW technicians use special tools. The text will note when a repair requires these special tools and, where possible, will recommend practica¡ alter- natives.
6. We have endeavored to ensure the highest degree of accuracy possible . When the vast array of data presented in the manual is taken into account, however, no claim to infallibility can be made. We therefore cannot be responsible for the result ofany errors that may have crept into the text. The publisher encourages comments from the readers of this manual with regard to any errors and, al- so, suggestíons for improvement in the presentation of technical material. These communications have been and will be carefully considered in the preparation of future printings of this and other manuals. Please contact Robert Bentley, Inc . using the contact information on the copyright page at the beginning of this manual. BMW offers extensive warranties, especially on components of the fuel delivery and emissions control systems. Therefore, before deciding to repair a BMWthat may still be covered wholly or in part by any warranties issued by BMWof North America, consultyour authorized BMWdealer. You may find that he can make the repair eitherfree or at minimum cost. Regardless of its age and whetheror not it is still protected by warranty, your BMWis an easy car to get serviced. So if at any time a repair is needed that you feel is too difficult to do yourself, a trained BMWtechnician is ready to do the job for you. Each authorized BMWdealer senrice depart- ment has made a significant investment in service and diagnostic test equipment, specials tools, and BMW original parts. It is also the best source of the most up-to-date repair and service tech- niques, which includes factory training and technical literature . Servicing your BMWthrough an au- thorized BMWdealerwill insure that your investment will be protected while maintaining the highest degree of service standards. Robert Bentley Versión electrónica licenciada a Hernan Fulco / email@example.com / tel: 54(11)4855-3088 Buenos Aires // Argentina
7. Please read these warnings and cautions before proceeding with maintenance and repair work. WARNING- Friction materials (such as brake pads or shorts or clutch discs) contain asbestos fibers or other friction materials. Do not create See also Cautions on page viü dust by grinding, sanding, or by cleaning with compressed air. Some repairs may be beyond your capability. If you lack the Avoid breathing dust. Breathing any friction material dust can lead skills, tools and equipment, or a suitable workplace for any proce- to serious diseases and may result in death. dure described in this manual, we suggest you leave such repairs Batteries give off explosive hydrogen gas during charging. to an authorized BMW dealer service department or other quali- Keep sparks, lighted matches and open flame away from the top fied shop. of the battery If hydrogen gas escaping from the cap vents is Do not re-use any fastenersthat are worn ordeformed in normal ignited, it will ignite gas trapped in the cells and cause the battery use. Many fasteners are designed to be used only once and to explode. become unreliable and may fail when used a second time. This Connect and disconnect battery cables, jumper cables ora bat- includes, but is not limited to, nuts, bolts, washers, self-locking nuts or bolts, circlips and cotter pins. Always replace these fasteners with new parts. Do not quick-charge the battery (for boost starting) for longer Never work under a lifted car unless it is solidly supported on than one minute. Wait at least one minute before boosting the bat- stands designed for the purpose. Do not support a car on cinder tery a second time. blocks, hollow tiles or other props that may crumble under contin- uous load. Never work under a car that is supported solely by a Do not allow battery charging voltage to exceed 16.5 volts. If the jack. Never work under the car while the engine is running. battery begins producing gas or boiling violently, reduce the charg- ing rate. Boosting a sulfated battery at a high charging rate can If you are going to work under a car on the ground, make sure cause an explosion. that the ground is level. Block the wheels to keep the car from roll- ing. Disconnect the battery negative (-) terminal (ground strap) to The air-conditioning system is filled with chemical refrigerant, prevent others from starting the car while you are under it. which is hazardous . The A/C system should be serviced only by trained technicians using approved refrigerant recovery/recycling Never run the engine unless the work area is well ventilated. equipment, trained in related safety precautions, and familiar with Carbon monoxide kills. regulations governing the discharging and disposal of automotive Finger rings, bracelets and other jewelry should be removed so chemical refrigerants. tery charger only with the ignition switched off, to prevent sparks. Do not disconnect the battery while the engine is running. that they cannot cause electrical shorts, get caught in running Do not expose any part of the A/C system to high temperatures machinery, or be crushed by heavy parts. such as open flame. Excessive heat will increase system pressure Tie long hair behind your head. Do not wear a necktie, a scarf, and may cause the system to burst. loose clothing, or a necklace when you work near machine tools or Some aerosol tire inflators are highly flammable . Be extremely running engines. Ifyour hair, clothing, orjewelry wereto get caught cautious when repairing a tire that may have been inflated using in the machinery, severe injury could result. an aerosol tire inflator. Keep sparks, open flame or other sources Do not attempt to work on your car if you do not feel well. You of ignition away from the tire repair area. Inflate and deflate the tire increase the danger of injury to yourself and others if you are tired, at least four times before breaking the bead from the rim. Com- upset or have taken medication or any other substance that may Pletely remove the tire from the rim before attempting any repair. keep you from being fully alert. Illuminate your work area adequately but safety. Use a portable safety light for working inside or under the car. Make sure the bulb is enclosed by a wire cage. The hot filament of an accidentally bro- ken bulb can ignite spilled fuel or oil. Catch draining fuel, oil, or brake fluid in suitable containers. Do not use food or beverage containers that might mislead someone into drínking from them. Store flammable fluids awayfrom fire haz- ards. Wipe up spills at once, but do not store the oily rags, which can ignite and burn spontaneously. Always observe good workshop practices. Wear goggles when you operate machine tools or work with battery acid. Gloves or other protectioe clothing should be worn whenever the job requires working with harmful substances. Greases, lubricants and other automotive chemicals contain toxic substances, many of which are absorbed directly through the skin . Read the manufacturer's instructions and warnings carefully. Use hand and eye protection. Avoid direct skin contact Cars covered bythis manual are equipped with a supplemental restraint system (SRS), that automatically deploys an airbag(s) in the event of a frontal ímpact. The airbag(s) is inflated by an explo- sive device. Handled improperly or without adequate safeguards, can be accidently activated and cause serious injury. The ignition system produces high voltages that can be fatal. Avoid contact with exposed terminals and use extreme care when working on a car with the engine running orthe ígnition switched on. Place jack stands only at locations specified by manufacturer. The vehicle lifting jack supplied with the vehicle is intended for tire changes only. A heavy duty floor jack should be used to lift vehicle before installing jack stands. See 010 Fundamentals for the Do- . it-Yourself Owner. Battery acid (electrolyte) can cause severe burns. Flush contact area with water, seek medical attention. Aerosol cleaners and solvents may contain hazardous ordeadly vapors and are highly flammable . Use only in a well ventilated area. Do not use on hot surfaces (engines, brakes, etc.). Disconnect the battery negative (-) terminal (Ground strap) Do not remove coolant reservoir or radiator cap with the engine whenever you work on the fuel system orthe electrical system. Do hot. Danger of bums and engine damage. not smoke or work near heaters or other fire hazards. Keep an approved fire extinguisher handy. continued on next page vii
8. Please read these warnings and cautions before proceeding with maintenance and repair work. CAUTION- See also Warnings on page vi¡ Before doing any electrical welding on cars equipped with ABS, disconnect the battery negative (-) terminal (ground strap) and the If you lack the skills, tools and equipment, or a suitable work- ABS control unit connector. shop for any procedure described in this manual, we suggest you leave such repairs to an authorized BMW dealer or other qualified On cars equipped with anti-theft radios, make sure you knowthe shop. correct radio activation code before disconnecting the battery or removing the radio. lf the wrong code is entered into the radio BMW is constantly improving its cars and sometimes these when power is restored, that radio may lock up and be rendered changes, both in parts and specifications, are made applicable to inoperable, even if the correct code is then entered. earlier models. Therefore, part numbers listed in this manual are for reference only. Always check with your authorized BMW dealer Always make sure ignition is off before disconnecting battery. parts department for the latest information . Label battery cables before disconnecting. On some models, Before starting a job, make certain that you have all the neces- battery cables are not color coded. sary tools and parts on hand. Read al¡ the instructions thoroughly, do not attempt shortcuts . Use tools appropriate to the work and Disconnecting the battery may erase fault code(s) stored in con- use only replacement parts meeting BMW specifications . Make- trol module memory Using special BMW diagnostíc equipment, shift tools, parts and procedures will not make good repairs. check for faultcodes prior to disconnecting the batterycables. If the Check Engine light is illuminated, see 100 Engine-General for Use pneumatic and electric tools only to loosen threaded parts On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) fault code information. lf any other and fasteners . Never use these tools to tighten fasteners, espe- system faults have been detected (indicated by an ílluminated cially on light alloy parts. Always use a torque wrench to tighten warning light), see an authorized BMW dealer. fasteners to the tightening torque specification listed. If a normal or rapid charger is used to charge battery, the battery Be mindful ofthe environment and ecology. Beforeyou drain the must be disconnected and removed from the vehicle in order to crankcase, find out the proper way to dispose of the oil. Do not avoid damaging paint and upholstery pour oil onto the ground, down a drain, or into a stream, pond or lake. Dispose of in accordance with Federal, State and Local laws. Do not quick-charge the battery (for boost starting) for longer than one minute. Wait at least one minute before boosting the bat- e If battery power is lost or the battery has been disconnected, the tery a second time. power windows must be re-initialized . Both one touch up/down and pinch-protection will be inactive until windows are re-initial- Connect and disconnect a battery charger only with the battery ized. See 512 Door Windows. charger switched off. The control module for the anti-lock brake system (ABS) cannot withstand temperatures from a paint-drying booth or a heat lamp in excess of 203°F (95°C) and should not be subjected to temper- atures in excess of 185°F (85°C) for more than two hours. Sealed ormaintenance free batteries should be slow-charged only, at an amperage rate that is approximately 10% of the bat- tery's ampere-hour (Ah) rating. Do not allow battery charging voltage to exceed 16.5 volts. If the battery begins producing gas orboiling violently, reduce the charg- ing rate. Boosting a sulfated battery at a high charging rate can cause an explosion.
9. GENERAL FUNDAMENTALS FOR THE DO-ITYOURSELF OWNER 010-1 010 Fundamentals for the Do-lt-Yourself Owner GENERAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-1 TOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-8 Basic Tool Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-8 HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL . . . . . . . . . . .010-2 Jack Stands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-9 Warnings, Cautions and Notes . . . . . . . . . . . .010-2 Oil Change Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-9 GETTING STARTED. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-2 Torque Wrench . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-10 Feeler Gauges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-10 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-2 Digital Multimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-10 Lífting the Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-3 gMW Special Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-11 Raising car safely. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-3 Working under car safely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-4 EMERGENCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-11 ADVICE FOR THE BEGINNER . . . . . . . . . .010-4 Changing a Tire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-11 Car Will Not Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-11 Planning Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-4 Jump Starting Car . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-12 Cleanliness. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-4 Overheating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-12 Non-reusable Fasteners. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-5 Low Oil Pressure. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-13 Tightening Fasteners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-5 Brake Fluid Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-13 Gaskets and Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-5 Check Engine Warning Light . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-13 Electrical Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-6 pim Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-13 Wire Repairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-6 Towíng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .010-13 BUYING PARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-6 Spare Parts Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-14 Genuine BMW Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-6 Non-returnable Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-7 TABLES Information You Need to Know . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-7 a. General Bolt Tightening Torques SERVICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-7 Although the BMW is a sophisticated and complex machine, basic maintenance can be accomplished by an interested own- er with mechanical skills and the right information. Most of the preventive maintenance that is required in the lifetime ofthe av- erage BMW isweil within the capabilities of thedo-it-yourseifer. WARNING - Do not use this manual unless you are familiar with basic automotive repair procedures and sale work- shop practices . This manual illustrates the work- shop procedures required for most service work; it is nota substitute for full and up-to-date information from the vehicle manufacturer or for proper training as an automotive technician . Note that it is not pos- sible forus to anticipate al¡ of the ways or conditions under which vehicles maybe serviced ortoprovide cautions as to all of the possible hazards that may result ' in Nm (max. permissible) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 010-5 WARNING - Your common sense andgoodjudgmentare crucial to sale and successful service work. Read proce- dures through before starting them. Think about whether the condition ofyour car, your leve¡ of me- chanical skill, or your leve¡ of reading comprehen- sion might result in or contribute in some way to an occurrence that might cause you injury damage your car, or result in an unsafe repair. lf you have doubts for these or other reasons about yourabilíty to perform sale repair work on your car, have the work done at an authorized BMW dealer or other qualified shop. This section of the manual is intended to help the beginner get started . To begin with there is a discussion on How To Use This Manual. Tips on mechanicas skills and workshop practic- es that can helpthe beginner do a faster and more thorough job can be found under Getting Started. The basic tools needed to do most of the procedures in this manual are found under Tools. The section ends with aquick reference guide to Emer- gencies, including basic troubleshooting and information on how to gauge the seriousness of a problem. GENERAL Versión electrónica licenciada a Hernan Fulco / firstname.lastname@example.org / tel: 54(11)4855-3088 Buenos Aires // Argentina
10. 010-2 FUNDAMENTALS FOR THE DO-ITYOURSELF OWNER HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL A note contains helpful information, tips that will hefp in The manual is divided into nine sections: doing a betterjob and completing !t more easíly. 0 GENERAL DATA AND MAINTENANCE 1 ENGINE 2 TRANSMISSION 3 SUSPENSION, STEERING ANDBRAKES 4 BODY 5 BODY EQUIPMENT 6 ELECTRICAL SYSTEM 7 EQUIPMENTANDACCESSORIES ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAMS 0 GENERAL DATA AND MAINTENANCE covers the rec- ommended maintenance schedules and service procedures needed to perform BMW scheduled maintenance work. Also within this section is the 010 Fundamentals for the Do-It- Yourself Owner section, which contains basic instructions, tips and helpful hints for do-it-yourself maintenance and repair. The next seven sections (1 through 7) are repair based and are further broken down into three digit repair groups. Each ma- jor section begins with a General repair group, e.g. 100 En- gine-General. These 00 (double zero) groups are mostly descriptive in nature, covering topics such as theory of opera- tion and troubleshooting. The remainder of the repair groups contain the more involved repair information. The last major section contains detailed electrical wiring diagram schematics. A master listing of the 9 major sections and the correspond- ing individual repair groups can be found on the inside front cover. Each repair group begins with a Table of Contents listing the majos subject headings within the group . Page numbers throughout the manual are organized according to the repair group system. For example, you can expect to find repairinfor- mation on brakes (Repair Group 340) beginning on page 340- 1 . A comprehensive index can be found at the back of the man- ual. Warnings, Cautions and Notes Throughout this manual are many passages with the head- ings WARNING, CAUTION, or NOTE. These very important headings have diflerent meanings. WARNING- The text under this heading warns ofunsafepractic- es thatare very likelyto cause ínjury, eitherby dírect threat to the person(s) pertorming the workorbyin- creased riskofaccident ormechanfcal fallure whíle driving. CAUTION- A caution calls attention to important precautions to be observed during the repair work that willhelo preventaccidentally damaging the caroritsparts. GETTING STARTED Safety NOTE- Please read every WARNING, CAUTION, and NOTE at the front of the manual and as they appear in repair procedures. They are very important. Read them before you begin any maintenance or repair job. Some WARNINGs and CAUTIONs are repeated wherever they apply. Read them all. Do not skip any. These messages are important, even to the owner who never intends to work on the car. GETTING STARTED Most ofthe necessary maintenance and minor repairthat an automobile will need can be done with ordinary tools, even by owners with little or no experience in car repair. Below is some important information on how to work safely, a discussion of what tools will be needed and how to use them. Although an automobile presents many hazards, common sense and good equipment can helo ensure safety. Many acci- dents happen because of carelessness. Pay attention and stick to these few important safety rules. WARNING - Never run the engine in the work area unless it is well-ventflated. Theexhaustshouldbe vented to the outside. Carbon monoxide (CO) in the ex- haust kilts. Remove all neckties, scarts, loose clothing, or jewelry when working near running engines or power tools. Tuck in shirts. Tie long haír and se- cure it undera cap. Severeinjury can resultfrom these things beíng caught in rotatingparts. Remove ríngs, watches, and bracelets. Asíde from the dangers ofmoving parts, metallic jew- elry conducts electricity and may cause shorts, sparks, bums, or damage to the electrical sys- tem when accidentally contacting the battery or other electrical terminals . Disconnectthe battery negative () cable when- ever working on or near the fuel system or any- thlng that is electrically powered. Accidental electrícal contact may damage the electrical system or cause a fire.
11. WARNING- Never work under a lifted car unless it is solidly supported on jack stands that are intended for that purpose. Do not support a car on cinder blocks, bricks, or other objects that may shift or crumble under continuous load. Never work un- dera car thatis supported onlybythe liftingjack. Fuel is highly flammable. When working around fuel, do notsmoke or worknearheaters orother fire hazards. Keep an approved fire extinguisher handy. llluminate the work area adequately and safely. Use a portable safety light for working inside or underthe car. A fluorescent type lightis best be- cause it gives off less heat. Ifusing a light with a normal incandescent butb, use rough service bulbs to avoid breakage. The hot filament of an accidentallybroken bulb can ignite spilled fuelor oil Keep sparks, lighted matches, and any open llame away from the topofthe battery. Hydrogen gas emitted by the battery is highly flammable. Any nearby source of ignition may cause the battery to explode. Never ¡ay tools or parts in the engine compart- ment or on top of the battery. They may fall into confined spaces and be difficult to retrieve, be- come caught in beits or other rotating parts when the engine is started, or cause electrical shorts and damage to the electrical system. The fuel system is designed to retain pressure even when the ignition is off. When working with the fuelsystem, loosen the fuelfines slowly to al- low the residual pressure to dissipate gradually. Take precautions to avoid spraying fuel. Lifting the Car FUNDAMENTALS FOR THE DO-ITYOURSELF OWNER 010-3 For those repairsthat require raising the car, the properjack- ing points should be used to raise the car safely and avoid dam- age. There are four jacking points from which the car can be safely raised . The jack supplied with the car by BMW can only be used at the four side pointsjust behind the front wheel or just in front ofthe rear wheel. See Fig. 1 . WARNING- When raising the car using a floor jack or a hy- draulic lift, carefully position the jackpad to pre- vent damaging the car body. A suitable liner (wood, rubber, etc.) should be placed between the jack and the car to prevent body damage. Watch thejack closely. Make sure ftstays stable and does not shiftor tilt. As the car is raised, the car may rol¡ slightly and the jack may shift. Fig. 1. 3-Series jacking points (arrows). Raising car safely 1 . Park car on flat, leve¡ surface. 2. Remove the round cover from jack mount using a screwdriver. See Fig. 2. 0013126 Fig. 2. Jack mount cover being removed from rocker panel. 3. Place jack fully into position. See Fig. 3. Make sure jack is resting on flat, solid ground. Use a board or other sup- port to provide a firm surface for the jack, if necessary. 4. Raise car slowly while constantly checking position of jack and car. 5. Once car is raised, block the wheel that is opposite and farthest from jack to prevent car from unexpectedly roll- ing. GET77NG STARTER
12. 010-4 FUNDAMENTALS FOR THE DO-ITYOURSELF OWNER Fig. 3. BMW supplied jack correctly positioned in front jacking point. Most of the repairs and maintenance tasks described in this manual can be successfully completed by anyone with basic tools and abilities. To prevent getting in too deep, know what WARNING- the wholejob requires before starting. Read the procedurethor- Do not rely on the transmission or the emergen- oughly, from beginning to end, in order to know just what to ex cy brake to keep the car from rolling. They are pect and what parts will haveto be replaced. not a substitute forpositively blocking the oppo- site wheel. Never work undera car that is supportedonlyby a jack Use jack stands that are properly de- signed to support the car. See Tools. Working under car safely 1 . Disconnect negative (-) cable from battery so that no one else can start the car. Let others know what you will be doing. CAUTION- Priorto disconnecting the battery read the battery disconnection cautions given at the front of this manual on page vüi. 2. Raise car slowly as described above. 3. Use at least two jack stands to support the car. Ajack is a temporary lifting device and should not be used alone to support the car while you are under it. Use jack stands designed for the purpose of supporting a car. For more information on jack stands, see Tools below. WARNING - Do not use wood, concrete blocks, orbricks to sup- port a car. Wood may split. Blocks or bricks, while strong, are not designed for that kind of load, and may brakk orcollapse . ADVICE FOR THE BEGINNER 4 . Place jack stands on firm, solid surface. If necessary, use a flat board or similar solid object to provide a firm footing. 5. Lower car slowly until its weight is fully supported by jack stands. Watch to make sure that the jack stands do not tip or lean as the car settles on them. 6. Observe all jacking precautions again when raising car to remove jack stands. ADVICE FOR THE BEGINNER The tips in the paragraphs that follow are general advice to help any do-it-yourself BMWowner perform repairs and main- tenance tasks more easily and more professionally. Planning Ahead Cleanliness Keeping things organized, neat, and clean is essential to do- ing a good job. When working under the hood, fender covers will protect the finish from scratches and other damage. Make sure the car is relatively clean so that dirt under the coverdoes not scratch the finish. Any repairjob will be less troublesome ifthe parts are clean. For cleaning old parts, there are many solvents and parts cleaners commercially available. For cleaning parts prior to assembly, commercially available aerosol cans of parts cleaneror brake cleaner are handyto use, and the cleaner will evaporate completely. WARNING - Virtually all solvents used for cleaning parts are highly flammable, especially in aerosol form. Use wíth extreme care. Do not smoke. Do not use these products near any source of heat, sparks or flame. Let any solvent or cleaning product dry completely. Low- pressure, dry compressed air is helpful if available . Also, use only lint-free rags for cleaning and drying.
13. FUNDAMENTALS FOR THE DO-ITYOURSELF OWNER 010-5 WARNING - Avoid getting tools or clothing near the battery. Bat- tery electrolyte is a corrosive acid. Be careful with brake fluid, as it can damage the cars paint Finally, keep rubber parts such as hoses and bolts free from oil orgasoline, as they willcause the material to soften and fail prematurely. Non-reusable Fasteners Many fasteners used on the cars covered by this manual must be replaced with new oses oncethey are removed. These Fig. 4. General sequence for alternately tightening multiple fasten- include but are not limited to: bolts, nuts (self-locking, nylock, ers. etc.), cotter pins, studs, brake fittings, rol¡ pins, clips and wash- ers. Genuine BMW parts should be the only replacement parts NOTE- used for this purpose. Metric bolt classes or grades are marked on the bolt' head. Some bolts are designed to stretch during assembly and are permanently altered rendering them unreliable once removed. These are known as torque-to-yield fasteners. Always replace fasteners where instructed to do so. Failure to replace these fasteners could cause vehicle damage and personal injury. See an authorized BMW dealer for applications and ordering information. Tightening Fasteners When tightening the bolts or nuts that attach a component, it is always good practice to tighten the boltsgraduallyand evenly to avoid misalignment or over stressing any one portion of the component. For components sealed with gaskets, this method helpsto ensure thatthe gasket will seal properly and complete- ly. Where there are severa¡ fasteners, tighten them in a se- quence alternating between opposite sides of the component. Fig. 4 shows such a sequence for tightening six bolts attaching a typical component. Repeatthe sequence until al¡ the bolts are evenly tightened to the proper specification. Do not confuse wrench size with bolt diameter size. For a listing of the common wrenches used on vari- ous bolt diameters, see Basic Tool Requirements. Table a. General Bolt Tightening Torques in Nm (max. permissible) Bolt Class (according to DIN 267) Bolt diameter 5.6 5.8 6.8 8.8 10.9 12.9 M5 2.5 3.5 4.5 6 8 10 M6 4.5 6 7.5 10 14 ` 17 M8 11 15 - 18 24 34 40 M10 23 30 36 47 66 79 M12 39 52 62 82 115 140 M14 62 82 98 130 180 220 M16 94 26 150 200 280 340 M18 130 174 210 280 390 470 For some repairs a specific tightening sequence is neces- sary, or a particular order of assembly is required. Such special Gaskets and Seals conditions are noted in the text, and the necessary sequence is described orillustrated. Where no specific torque is listed, Ta- The smoothest metal mating surfaces still have imperfec ble a can be used as a general guide for tightening fasteners. tions that can allow leakage. To prevent leakage at critica¡ joints, gaskets of soft, form-fitting material are used to fill in the WARNING - imperfections. Table a is a general reference only. The values list- ed in the table are notintended to be used as a sub- To be most effective, gaskets are designed to crush and be- stitute for torques specifically called out in the text come thinner as the mating parts are bolted together. Once a throughout this manual. gasket has been used, it is no longer capable of making as good a sea¡ as when new, and is much more likely to leak. For this reason, gaskets should not be reused. Always plan to use new gaskets for any reassembly. Some gaskets-such as head gaskets-are directional. Make sure that these are in- stalled correctly. This same logic applies to any part used for sealing, including rubber O-rings and copper sealing washers. ADVICE FOR THE BEGINNER
14. 010-6 FUNDAMENTALS FOR THE DO-ITYOURSELF OWNER In places where a shaft must pass through a housing, flexible lip seals are used to keepthe lubricating oil or grease from leak- ing out past the rotating shaft. Seals should never be reused once they have been removed. When removing a seal, be care- ful notlo scratch orotherwise damage the metal surfaces. Even minor damage to sealing surfaces can cause sea¡ damage and leakage. The key to sea¡ installation is to get the sea¡ in straight without damaging ¡t. Use a sea¡ driverthat is the same diameter as the seal housing to gently and evenly insta¡I into place. If a proper size seal driver is not available, a socket of the right size will do. When installing a seal, ¡t a good idea to coat the sea¡ with o¡I to aid installation . Some seals are directional and special instal- lation instructions apply. Make sure ¡t is installed with the lip fac- ing the correct way. Normally the lip faces the inside. Note the installation direction of the old sea¡ before removing ¡t. Electrical Testing Many electrical problems can be understood and solved with only a little fundamental knowledge of how electrical circuits Insulate the finished connection. Electronics stores can sup- function. ply heat-shrinkable insulating tubing that can be placed onto the wire before connectiog, slid over the finished joint, and Electric current only flows in a complete circuit. To operate, shrunk to a tight fit with a heat gun or hair dryer. The next best every electrical device in the car requires a complete circuit in- alternative is electrical tape. Make sure the wire is clean and cluding a voltage source and a path to ground. The positive (+) free of solder flux or other contamination. Wrap the joint tightly side of the battery is the original voltage source, and ground is to sea¡ out moisture. See 600 Electrical-General for more in- any retum path to the negative ( )- side of the battery° whetherli formation. through the wiring harness or the car body. Except for portions of the charging system, al¡ electrical current in the car is direct current (DC) and flows from positive (+) to negative (-). BVYING PART$ Switches are used to turn components on or off by